Technical reasoning

SPN solves the technical challenges of DePIN networks by providing cryptographic certificates for every device, addressing the inefficiencies of batch IP address allocation, and enabling secure remote connections through end-to-end encryption. Staex software acts as a notary, ensuring authenticity and security in device communication via cryptographic certificates.

Every device and every service that runs on the device needs a certificate to ensure secure access to the device/service and prevent lateral movement of the threat actor when device/service is compromised.

IPv4/v6 addresses are sold in batches, and the batches are too big (minimum 256 addresses for IPv4 and 264 for IPv6) to purchase for personal use or even small businesses. Individuals and small businesses have to rely on cloud providers to provide them an IP address for a web site or a service.

As a host you have to configure the IP addresses manually for each device, whereas SPN public keys can be provisioned automatically.

SPN is designed for DePIN devices that can not run a VPN — IP cameras, smart meters, smart lights, smart sockets, smart fridges, etc. — but also runs on regular DePIN devices — routers, servers, single-board computers.

SPN hides real IP addresses of the devices, uses public keys as addresses, and prohibits any traffic by default. This prevents the whole class of IP address spoofing attacks.

SPN allows one to securely share their devices (i.e. allow network access) with selected network nodes. This is in contrast to existing peer-to-peer VPNs that only provide network isolation and in contrast to the Internet that allows access to anyone by default.